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Antikes Rom  
anonymous, 2014-04-11, 08:43  like dislike  Spam?  46.114.143...
Wer kann mir sagen, wie ich das Wort "Halbfreier" ins Englische übersetzen kann?
serf?  #751150
von jim (GB), 2014-04-11, 11:32  like dislike  Spam?  
a half-free man, a client; the term serf belongs to the post-Roman era and does not apply to Ancient Rome   #751202
von Proteus-, 2014-04-11, 14:04  like dislike  Spam?  193.83.230....

The client while he remains in his original position, though he may be protected by religion or custom from the actual treatment of a slave, is not really a free man, but rather to be assimilated to those informally emancipated persons who in later times were said “domini voluntate in libertate morari, et tantum metu serviendi liberari” (from the “Consultatio veteris Jurisconsulti,” quoted by Ortolan, Inst. Just. 2.55).

The subsequent process is best described in the words of Mommsen (Staatsr, iii. p. 66): “Out of a condition destitute of rights there was developed a capacity for rights, a guaranteed freedom, which was recognised by the state and its courts, ordinarily with the co-operation of the patron, but which in the last resort was enforced even against him. It was a legal status which, though at every given moment definite, seems as we look back on it continually in flux. Even though we had fuller knowledge of it, we could only characterise it as wavering between two extremes, so that the element of servitude, the clientship, is always waning; that of freedom, the plebeiate, always increasing; until the process ends with the conversion of the half-free into the full freeman.”
English also belongs to the post-Roman era.  #751211
von jim (GB), 2014-04-11, 14:20  like dislike  Spam?  
Other English words include "freedman" and "franklin". It would be a mistranslation to use "client" as this has a totally different meaning today.
von uffie (GH/KI), Last modified: 2014-04-11, 14:40  like dislike  Spam?  
Roman clients, unless context is crystal-clear  #751233
von Proteus-, 2014-04-11, 14:48  like dislike  Spam?  193.83.230....

Caveat: diminished freedom is not as much of an issue in English disquisitions on the subject; therefore the safest way to bring the meaning across would seem to be half-free man
A freedman was technically a libertus - personally a man of diminished freedom - but the next generation could be fully free / freeborn  #751239
von Proteus-, 2014-04-11, 14:59  like dislike  Spam?  193.83.230....

It was much harder to escape clientship. The rule tended to be: once a client, always a client.

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